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Resources

We hope that business negotiators find what they're searching for in our free resources. This is the next best thing to coming to one of our negotiation seminars.

Collective Bargaining
A negotiation process that occurs between employers (or their representatives) and the representatives of a union to negotiate issues that consists of wages, hours of work and other conditions of employment. Normally results in a written contract that is defined by specific time duration ‘life of the contract’. Doesn't necessarily comprise of bargaining as the name suggests. Learn more about Collective Bargaining
Negotiation Approaches and Perspectives
'It is human nature to think wisely and act foolishly' Anatole France The worst mistakes are the ones we know we should've avoided in the first place. Yet, we will occasionally err because we are infallibly human. The best thing we can do is to try and recognise those errors that are most avoidable. When sitting down at the negotiating table, it might be a good idea to get ourselves into the habit of going through a mental checklist. This is the time to lean back and take a reality check.
Negotiation Coalition
A temporary union between two or more individuals or groups for a common aim or goal. A relatively common practice utilized in multi-party negotiations, used to gain advantage in the negotiation. Coalitions are more common when negotiators' stand to gain more through collaboration than through competing.
Use Your Negotiation Style - Don't Let It Use You
In our approach to both our personal and professional lives, everybody has their own unique style when dealing with problem solving, dispute resolutions, or negotiations. Our individual personalities were formed early in our childhood, tempered and sculpted by a lifetime from coping with the raw experience of life. Every situation that we face acts as a teaching aid. We learn to adapt our own unique style in tackling any future problems that lurks down the road of life. Our
BATNA
BATNA is an acronym popularised by Roger Fisher and William Ury which stands for 'Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement'. BATNA answers the question: 'What would you do if you weren't able to agree a deal with your negotiation counterparty?' Your BATNA is the alternative action you'll take should your proposed agreement fail to materialize. Most business people simply use the phrase: 'Best Alternative'. Your BATNA options typically include: finding another counterparty
Being Culturally Intelligent
by - Dr. Bob March
"WHEN IN JAPAN, BEHAVE AS THE JAPANESE DO" - IS THAT REALLY BEING CULTURALLY INTELLIGENT? Deciding on the right nuance of culturally appropriate behavior in Japan is not easy. I used to work with Colorado-born Fred Hevers in Tokyo. He spoke astonishingly fluent Japanese, much better than mine. Impertinent though it was of me, I once suggested to him that he was far too polite, when he spoke to many Japanese. He took it well, and seemed to ponder it. We both moved on to other jobs and
Counter Purchase
An arrangement where one company (the seller), agrees to sell products or services to a foreign purchaser, but also simultaneously agrees to purchase specified products or services from the foreign partner. Also known as parallel bartering and is the most commonly used form in a countertrade agreement in international business interactions.
The Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA)
ZOPA might almost sound like a foreign word for a cheer of joy, or maybe even a new and exciting soft drink about to splash the marketplace. It's neither but if you have a wide ZOPA in your negotiation, it's nearly as sweet. Negotiation ZOPA stands for Zone of Possible Agreement. It's the blue sky range where deals are made, that both parties to a negotiation find acceptable. Whether we're buying something at a bustling yard sale, a country home, or entering into a complex business
Negotiation Bargaining Zone
Your Bargaining Zone is the range or area in which an agreement is satisfactory to both negotiating parties. The bargaining zone is essentially the overlap area between walk away positions in a negotiation. Before entering into a negotiation, it's essential that you reduce your risk by deciding not only your walk-aways for each goal or negotiable, but and also predicting other negotiators' walk-aways too. Clients on our negotiation training courses often push back saying:
Avoiding Common Pitfalls during Negotiations in China
Western business people are flocking to the Far East. China has clearly become one of the most sought after places that offer a near endless source of potential market growth. For many westerners, the eastern part of the world is a place steeped in mystery and a culture, both alien and fascinating to our way of doing things. China is a vast potential marketplace of over a billion plus potential. Millionaires spring up like weeds virtually overnight, while millions of peasants
Aspiration Base
Setting the highest achievable negotiation target level in terms of goals or objectives to conclude a negotiated agreement.
Knowing When It's Time to Walk-Not Talk
"A long dispute means both parties are wrong." Voltaire Knowing when and how to negotiate is one thing. Knowing when not to negotiate at all, is an altogether different matter. Every savvy negotiator is aware that there are times to break off the talks for now, in order to enhance the talks later. Reasons could include a cooling off process or to re-evaluate new information. However, there are other thorny conditions which can crop up when the circumstances compel you to not negotiate
Arbitration
A process to resolve a dispute between negotiating parties who have reached a deadlock in their negotiation. The parties in dispute are referred to a ‘third party’, which is one that is either agreed upon by the parties in dispute, or as provided by legislated law. The third party renders a judgement that is binding on the parties in dispute. Arbitration is often used in international negotiations and in collective bargaining.
Principal and Agents in Negotiation
In negotiations, you have to know who's sitting at the table. Some of these individuals can make binding decisions on the spot. In many other situations, the people involved represent the decision makers. They may have only limited authority. Or, they may have no authority at all. Let's look at this in more detail. Principals In all negotiations, the principle parties are the decision makers. These are the people who ultimately make or break the deal. These are the 'Top Dogs'.
Negotiation Anchoring
Anchoring is an attempt to establish a reference point (anchor) around which a negotiation will revolve. The anchor will often be used as a reference point to make negotiation adjustments. Anchoring often occurs when the first offer is presented at the beginning of a negotiation.
Japanese Business Negotiation Relationships with Westerners
by - Dr. Bob March
A discovery from my 1980s consulting and training work in Japan, was that Westerners in business meetings with Japanese were generally more ill at ease, uncomfortable and awkward than were the Japanese. This went so much against the stereotypes that both Westerners and Japanese business people shared. The Japanese were seen as shy violets, Westerners as sociable and extrovert. My research about business people however, was confirmed again and again, especially in business
Negotiation Bargaining
What is bargaining? Bargaining is a simple form of the distributive negotiation process that is both competitive and positional. Meaning bargaining doesn't seek to create value but instead focuses on negotiators claiming value. Bargaining very often revolves around a single issue—usually price. Bargaining predominates in one-time negotiations, e.g. buying or selling a car or house when you don't intend on having an ongoing relationship. One side usually attempts
Building Trust with the Japanese
by - Dr. Bob March
Japanese believe, once the first contacts, and introductions are completed, the next stage involves the development of trust through deeper knowledge of what the Westerners have to offer. How we handle ourselves as business people and managers, our efficiency, manufacturing methods, the standard of quality of our products and whether or not we are people they can do business with. There are times when the seller wonders: "what else does it take?" For some the answer is: "It
Winners Curse
Occurs when an under aspiring negotiator sets their target or aspirations (goals or objectives) too low at the outset of a negotiation and is granted an immediate agreement by their negotiating counterpart.
Negotiation Positions vs. Interests
When two people take opposing sides on an issue in a dispute, they both often refuse to budge from their differing viewpoints. The result is a stalemate. If both sides find a solution, then both can win. We call this resolution a win-win negotiation outcome. You can achieve a win-win by training yourself to pay attention to the interests driving the other side's position in a negotiation. The Negotiation Position The simple reason why many people fail to find a negotiated agreement